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Rather, it implies a mass cultural suicide.

What sort of men will they reproduce? Vampire eroticism, which allows both male and female to penetrate and be penetrated, suggests that women may express desire actively as well as succumb to it passively although the Dracula romances noticeably downplay the violence and exploitation also suggested by feeding on another. Moreover, the close connection between sexuality and feeding suggests that monogamy may not be a requirement for romance—the vampire, after all, needs many sources of food. In that sense, the Dracula-Mina romance plot also puts the adultery plot onto a collision course with the far less familiar polygamy plot.

What Mina sees around her confirms her anxieties about sex: after all, a former friend, betrayed by her lover, is now forced to walk the streets, an example of how male sexuality turns women into consumable objects Essex Despite the phrasing, neither Mina nor the novel distinguishes between the self-justification of the first instance Essex and what appears to be rape in the second; instead, Mina, Jonathan, and, indeed, Dracula cast these incidents as equivalent sexual and emotional betrayals. First, though, they require Dracula. She becomes aware that she is somehow split, that culture has decreed that her own body must remain a mystery.

The marriage plot promises to transform the unruly, disruptive energies of desire into something organized, socially legitimated, and carefully controlled. The irony, however, is that Lucy is feeling no such excitement, as she prefers her secret affair with the artistic Morris over her conventional future with Arthur.

In that sense, the novel initially appears to shatter the romance plot altogether. Everyone, in other words, is a free agent.

Viande bio de cochon et de veau, charcuteries, conserves et plats cuisinés

Once again, Dracula the vampire usurps the position of Christ the bridegroom, while he also becomes the idealized eternal beloved. Communion, possession, consumption: does erotic desire lead the self to awareness, or is it a form of madness, or even a form of dangerous erasure? If the vampire offers an alternative to the corrupted sexuality of late-Victorian culture, does he merely point the way to another form of self-loss? Stripped of direct control over her own finances, unwillingly sedated, Lucy finds that the marriage plot—which had included a [End Page 10] dream of Arthur as a forgiving, self-sacrificial angel—has become more Bluebeard than Cinderella.

Instead, her plot morphs into a near parody of the neo-Victorian Gothic marriage, defined by male domination, sexual objectification, and commodification. It becomes difficult to separate communion from self-destruction. The sexual woman is a woman in thrall to her own body, rather than an autonomous, desiring subject. For the men, the real monster here is the sexually active woman herself, who must be purged and brutalized the water cure, for example until she is rendered submissive. It is not clear if this is supposed to be ancient wisdom or backdated New Age thinking, as Dracula sources part of his enlightenment to a stereotypical variant of Kali worship, complete with heavily sexualized and, it is hinted, homoerotic rites Essex Vampiric eroticism turns out to be a syncretic version of all purportedly blood-obsessed religions, joined together with the immortality conferred by the blood of the Sidhe Essex ; in that sense, it is a global construct incorporating East and West, monotheism [End Page 11] and polytheism, paganism and Christianity, mortal and faerie.

A by-product of the Crusades, post-medieval vampirism turns out to be a variant on the imperialism practiced by the late-Victorian British. But this is supposedly a kind of counter-imperialism that rejects territorial conquest. While Dracula conjures up visions of a new broad path to salvation, the novel instead leaves us with a rejuvenated understanding of heterosexuality, now appropriately updated to include both love and non-pathologized eroticism.

As Gary Waller has pointed out, vampire narratives default to heterosexual marriage in the end, and these novels are no different loc. Botting Their fantastic union of souls across time thus collapses into bathetic failure, as the vampire pursues the beloved he knows he will lose, and whose mind he is eternally doomed not to understand. The novel castigates any self-gratifying female sexuality as a potential loss of liberty, yet equally warns that sex without male emotional reciprocity is just as dangerous.

Williamson 44 , the novel constrains such passions in maternal concerns. Mina vanquishes the vampire not by staking him, but by choosing a man who is more other-directed, more aware of himself as a man in need of moral improvement. Jolted into self-consciousness through his encounter with the vampire, Jonathan at least hints at the possibility that male monstrosity can be tamed or sublimated.

Jonathan can seek moral redemption; Dracula, forever engaged in the same unsatisfactory quest for his one beloved woman, is not even capable of thinking himself out of his self-imposed romantic imprisonment, a failing that ultimately aligns him with the corrupt human men he professes to despise.

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Having explored alternatives to monogamy, in other words, the characters choose monogamous married life, while reserving their more outrageous experiments for the privacy of the bedroom. Many neo-Victorian novels have no happy ending for their heroines, entrapped in Gothic narratives in which male sexuality is irredeemably monstrous. The Dracula pastiches try to solve the problem by introducing a literally otherworldly mode of male sexual identity. Mina becomes thoroughly modern by defeating Dracula, not by killing him usually but, rather, by asserting autonomy through rational choice: she endorses his vision of desire and then transforms it into a new form of marriage that rests on a fully privatized form of sexual egalitarianism.

Lucy Westenra, the woman who prioritizes desire over marriage, must be evacuated from the narrative. So, too, must men whose lusts manifest themselves primarily through a desire for absolute control over female bodies. Crawford on other vampire romances ; I am grateful to Nadine Muller for her comments on earlier drafts of this paper.

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Auerbach, Nina. Our Vampires, Ourselves. Bailie, Helen T. Botting, Fred. Butler, Erik. Camden House, Butler, Josephine E. A Series of Essays , edited by Josephine E. Butler, Macmillan, , vii-lxiv. Clements, Susannah. Brazos Press, Craft, Christopher. Crawford, Joseph. The Twilight of the Gothic? Vampire Fiction and the Rise of the Paranormal Romance. University of Wales Press, Day, William Patrick. University Press of Kentucky, Ebert, Teresa.

Fletcher, Lisa. Historical Romance Fiction: Heterosexuality and Performativity. Ashgate, Franiuk, Renae and Samantha Scherr.

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Halberstam, [Jack]. Duke University Press, Hallab, Mary Y. State University of New York Press, Heilmann, Ann and Mark Llewellyn. Palgrave Macmillan, Hessels, Sandra. James, Syrie.

French-English Dictionary (35, Entries)

Accessed 7 April Jennings, Hope and Christine Wilson. Doan, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, , pp.

Kane, Kathryn. Kohlke, Marie-Luise. Letissier, Georges. Marcus, Steven. Basic Books, Mukherjea, Ananya. Nakagawa, Chiho. Nelson, Victoria. Harvard University Press, Platt, Carrie Ann. Poole, W.

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Baylor University Press, Prescott, Charles E. Rabine, Leslie. University of Michigan Press, Radway, Janice A. Roach, Catherine. Sturgeon-Dodsworth, Karen. Smith, Andrew. Tenga, Angela and Elizabeth Zimmerman. Waller, Gary. University of Illinois Press, Weisser, Susan Ostrov. Rutgers University Press, Williamson, Milly.

Wallflower Press, Zanger, Jules. Zidle, Abby. Kaler and Rosemary E.

Considering that both texts belong to the genre of romance, the most vituperated of all literary genres, and also that their writers are Chamorro, and thus marginal to the mainstream canon of US romance authors, those novels might have been, in principle, condemned to oblivion. However, I will argue that an in-depth analysis of both works is worthwhile for a variety of reasons. First, the study of those two novels shows a number of strategies that undermine common under- or misrepresentations of Chamorro culture.

Second, a careful study of those two novels illustrates an interesting evolution in the genre of the romance, which historically has been mostly written by white writers. The Pacific has often featured as an exotic setting in romantic novels by US and European authors, who have tended to offer stereotypical representations of minority ethnic groups. Third, the two novels under consideration offer a departure from predictable representations of islands in popular literature, thus reconfiguring some of the tenets of Island Studies.

The colonial history of Guam is a long and complex one. For a number of years after this, no other Spaniard was interested in Guam. Then, in , Spain took formal possession of the island, only to neglect it once again and to use it as simply a provisioning stop between New Spain Mexico and Manila in the Philippines Hezel In , Jesuit Diego Luis de Sanvitores was officially sent to the island to start a missionary enterprise.

He was accompanied by a small group of Jesuits, some Filipino lay helpers and a small garrison Hezel The Spanish colonizing mission was not a peaceful one. The Spanish rule came to an end in with the Spanish-American War. Guam was peacefully taken by the US in 24 hours, as the Spanish garrison on the island was very poorly defended.