Your Account Logout. More Urban Less Poor. By Goran Tannerfeldt, Per Ljung.
Edition 1st Edition. First Published Imprint Routledge.
CHAPTER 1: Introduction: Urban governance in the Realm of Complexity
Pages pages. Written in an accessible style, the book examines how cities grow, their economic development, urban poverty, housing and environmental problems. It also examines how to face these challenges through governance and management of urban growth, the finance and delivery of services, and finding a role for development cooperation. This is essential reading for development professionals, researchers, students and others working on any facet of urban development and management in our rapidly urbanizing world.
An urbanizing world -- Urban growth continues -- Understanding urbanization -- Urban-rural linkages -- 2.
This development and its controversial points will be discussed further in this dossier. This development can be described roughly as follows:. Then and there, physical constructions and reconstructions were at the core of urban policies, although with differences in pace and methods according to the countries. In the Netherlands, for instance, physical reconstruction and construction of new housing were strongly related to the reconstruction of city centres demolished during the war Musterd and Ostendorf, The s and s were the decades in which the social element of urban renewal and of public housing renovation came to light, especially through the dilemma of how to maintain the spatial balance between poor and wealthier populations, how to avoid segregation and social exclusion and the concentration of poverty in certain neighbourhoods of the city.
The promotion of social mix in all urban areas became one of the tools adopted to achieve these purposes.
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Yet the nuances of social mixing policies were changing, between objectives of attracting more affluent populations into poor neighbourhoods or offering better residential opportunities to the local population in order to slow outward migration from the neighbourhood Musterd and Ostendorf, In France, the idea of socially mixed neighbourhoods derived from the political enigma between two approaches concerning the fight against segregation.
In a simplified way, these two proposals were as follows: either create a more equal spatial redistribution of poverty within the social housing sector or improve the conditions of accessibility of the poorest people to social housing. While the first approach supported the creation of socially mixed neighbourhoods with a certain amount of demolition of poor quality housing when necessary, the second would have led to the strengthening of segregation, coupled with a higher number of demolitions within the existing social housing stock.
Finally, the National program for urban renewal PNRU launched in became an alloy of the two approaches: adopting social mixing as the core element of its objectives, the program opted for the demolition of a relatively expanded number of housing units and for their replacement by higher status housing and private ownership Donzelot, Since the s and s integrated urban development has become a prevailing paradigm in urban policies in Europe.
Hence urban renewal is conceived as a complex program with the intersection of physical, economic and social types of interventions. In fact, integrated urban development is an important pillar of EU cohesion policies supported with a variety of tools such as the Integrated Territorial Investments ITI launched for the period, supporting cross-sectorial interventions in certain urban areas, permitting the combination of different thematic objectives social, economic, etc.
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Urban renewal is a rather controversial concept, embracing a large scale of actions, with a large variety of approaches on urban development. It can take place through voluntary intervention of a public authority, as well as through democratic and participative action generated by the collaboration of multiple stakeholders.
It is a Janus-faced process that can generate both urban integration and urban exclusion at the same time. The same action can be conceived of as a necessary tool for upgrading slum areas, as well as the origin of the physical and social transformation of a popular area and the exclusion of its original inhabitants. Urban renewal has been strongly contested since the s because of its causal relationship with gentrification.
The latter itself is a controversial concept, as one of the determinant features of urban development since the end of WW2, with the generalization of large scale rehabilitation and urban renewal in cities. Smith, , p. The criticism cited above is mainly structural: it addresses all types of urban regeneration as sources of the complete transformation of urban neighbourhoods, pushing out of a significant majority of the original inhabitants and the general increase of an uneven development of the whole city.
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First and foremost, a note on social mixing policies. On the contrary! As a general rule, neither the attraction of better off populations to segregated areas through the improvement of living conditions, nor the delocalisation of excluded groups to other urban areas, have contributed to better social integration of the latter. Original expectations notwithstanding, the social capital and social networks of marginalised people did not improve as a result of the physical closeness of more advantaged social groups.
On the contrary, in many cases social mix policies led to the break-up of communities and the loss of the original relationships may have resulted in increased isolation of certain households Bolt et al.